Asia is both the largest and youngest of Earth's
continents. Most of the Asian continent is part of the
Eurasian Plate together with Europe, other parts belong to
other Plates. The Arabian Peninsula is not included in Asia
in plate tectonic context. Follow
Abbreviationfinder for Asia acronyms.
Asia farthest north has more than 1900-3500 million. year
old Precambrian continents, Angara. The bedrock is
here exposed in a smaller area to the north, the Anabar
Shield, and in the Aldan massif to the southeast. The crust
of the rest of the Asian continent, over three-quarters of
the continent, has been added over the last $ 700 million.
years, because young and old crustal areas have been united
with Angara in so-called growth belts.
This growth has not ceased; new crust is formed by the
tectonically and seismically active archipelago systems in
Southeast and East Asia. The plate boundaries are marked
here by ocean depths (" deep sea tombs"), where oceanic lithospheric plate sinks in and in the so-called subduction
zones is submerged below the arches to 650-700 km depth. It
is the tectonic and magmatic processes in these zones that
produce new continental crust; is stacked in a thick brim in
front of the archipelago, and partly by the fact that magma
that rises below the archipelago solidifies as deep rocks or
volcanic lava and ash. Contemporary seabed diversion south
of Australia thus leads this continent on a collision course
against Timor and other islands in Indonesia, and Australia
is therefore expected to be united with Asia - as is New
Guinea, which is now being pushed from east into eastern
The older growth belts in the Asian mainland also
developed plate tectonically, and while they formed,
changing plate movements led Asia far and wide on the globe.
When the Bajkalids were added for 700-540 million.
years ago, Angara was at 20 ° -40 °C.br. and collided here
with a pre-existing archipelago system. The next growth
belt, the Altaids, was added as Asia reached
its north of the equator during its operation. The Altaids
are made up of earlier archipelago systems, which were
united with Asia during the Paleozoic period until Younger
Carbon. Their very complicated structures are due to the
arches being jammed when they were added to Asia. They were
twisted, collapsed and displaced, and the sediment layers
were folded and pierced by new magma rocks.
For 300 million years ago, Asia collided with Europe.
This was super continent Pangea, which included Gondwana.
Asia and Europe were firmly welded during the collision in
the Uralids, whose western part is now raised as
the Ural Mountains. At the gathering of Pangaea, a
Precambrian massif from Gondwana, Serindia, was added to the
south of the Altaids. Pangaea was already suffering from
rupture and rift zones, when it for 240-150 million. years
ago in Trias and Jura was divided into several continents
and plates. Asia thereby became part of the Eurasian Plate.
At the same time, a large secluded sediment basin developed
in the western Siberian lowlands. Here, fresh and brackish
water deposits with an exceptionally high organic content
were deposited, which now, after just over DKK 100 million.
years of storage, is ripe for hydrocarbons and forms some of
the world's largest oil and gas deposits.
The youngest growth zone, the Tethysides,
was developed along the southern and eastern edges of the
Eurasian Plate over the past 250 million. year. Seabed
dispersal in the oceans south and east of the Eurasian Plate
brought island arcs and small and large continental
fragments from the disintegrated Pangaea to Asia. The old
continent pieces came from the African part of
Gondwanaland and from a now completely fragmented continent
area, Cathysia, located north of Australia. In
Northeast Asia, crust from the North American Plate was
The "alien" arches and continental fragments in the
Tethysides were linked by chimeric and alpine mountain
ranges, folded in the Triassic-Elder Cretaceous and in the
younger Cretaceous-Tertiary respectively. The kimmeric
collisions affected the nearby parts of the Altaids, where
The Tien Shan Mountains were pushed up to the north, so
deep-buried oil shales in the Late Permian-Mesozoic Junggar
Basin were raised and slightly folded, creating rich oil and
gas fields in the basins of the basin.
During India's north drift away from Madagascar, early
Tertiary volcanic eruptions occurred, forming Deccan's
plateau basins on top of the worn-out bedrock and rift zones
filled with Permian-Mesozoic sediments. For DKK 50-45
million Years ago, India's wide northern shelf collided with
Asia, and India has since been pushed like a ram's book
further and further north into the Eurasian Plate. The shelf
was thus permeated by surpluses and piled up in the
Himalayan mountain range south of the Indus-Tsangpo suture,
where remains of oceanic crust and a squeezed archipelago
are preserved. While the Himalayas raised, the rivers led
the degradation material south. It now meets the depths of
the Indo-Gangetic Plains and forms two major depositional
cones that extend far into the Arabian Sea and the Bay of
Bengal. During the Himalayan uplift, a total of 20 million
is estimated. km 3 to have been removed by the
The collision and India's persistent north drift in the
Younger Tertiary and Quaternary brought India about 4000 km
closer to Angara. The crust of the Indus-Tsangpo suture and
the Tibetan highlands became unusually thick, 65-80 km. At
the same time, large parts of the previously formed growth
belts north of the Indus-Tsangpo suture were tectonically
revived, thereby forming the high mountain ranges and large
highlands that now characterize the landscapes of Central
Asia. India's northwestern "corner" was pressed deep into
the kimmerian fold belt where the Pamir mountain range was
raised. In Tibet and China, large, still seismically active
lateral faults developed, and worn down folds in the Altaids
were transformed into young fractures. Even at the southern
edge of Angaras, the Baikal Valley was torn down as a deep
wound that went all the way to the bottom of the earth's
India's pressure also drove the Eurasian Plate to the
north; it may have initiated the development of i.a. The
Japanese Arches, which have a foundation of ancient crust.
North of Korea, fractures at the edge of the slab loosened a
strip of the old mainland crust, and it remained lying,
while the Eurasian Plate drifted north, opening the Japanese
Sea by rapid seabed spread for approx. 15 million years ago.
In the young deposition basins between the mainland and the
volcanic arches of East and South Asia, where the heat flow
is high, significant oil and gas deposits have developed in
a relatively short time.
Asia's changing geological history of lively and varied
magmatic activity has made the continent extremely rich in
mineral resources. Extractions include: iron, nickel,
platinum, chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, uranium, tin,
lead, copper, gold, silver, antimony and mercury. Very
famous are the Siberian diamond deposits that are linked to
deep crater pipes, where diamond-bearing mantle rocks from
at least 150 km depth are explosively carried up into the
otherwise extremely stable crust of the Angarakern. It came
to DKK 450-150 million. years ago, while new growth belts
were developed around the core. Diamonds are also mined in
the Ural Mountains and were recently found at a few sites
within the Altaids.
Sedimentally formed phosphate-rich layers are widespread
in Kazakhstan and eastern Siberia; they are extracted for
fertilizers. Asia also houses large deposits of coal and
lignite; wrestling happens in central Siberia, China,
Vietnam, India and Indonesia.