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Sudan

Yearbook 2010

Sudan. According to COUNTRYAAH, Presidential and parliamentary elections were held in April, the first since 1986 to be held in completely democratic forms. But the elections did not bode well for the 2011 referendum on a possible division of the country. Most opposition candidates for President Omar al-Bashir jumped off with insufficient preparation and suspicions of planned cheating. The EU withdrew its observers from the Darfur region due to lack of security. Southern Sudan's leading party SPLM (Sudanese people's liberation movement) boycotted elections in most provinces in the north, also citing planned cheating and risk of violence.

2010 Sudan

As a result, al-Bashir was re-elected with 68 percent of the vote, while SPLM leader Salva Kiir got 93 percent of the vote in the presidential election for the semi-autonomous South Sudan. The ruling party NCP (National Congress Party) consolidated its large majority in parliament. Both EU observers and the US Carter Center judged the confused election arrangements and the lack of transparency in the process.

The rest of the year was marked by a rising concern that the referendum on independence for the South would be sabotaged. Uncertainty also increased over whether a separate referendum in the oil-rich border region of Abyei could be implemented at all. The residents of Abyei must decide whether they should belong to northern or southern Sudan. Struggles in the area in July were interpreted as attempts to drive away people who are supposed to feel closer to the South. Negotiations on the conditions for the Abyei vote ended in October. Both sides also blamed each other for troop contractions along the possibly future national border, the stretch of which is not entirely clear either. The Khartoum government heard statements that cast doubt on both referendums,

In November, the US government offered to remove Sudan from its list of states that support terrorism, if the referendum on the status of the south is carried out according to the timetable. However, the sanctions punishing the government for the violence in Darfur would continue. In Darfur, it was relatively calm during the year, but ceasefires that the government closed at the beginning of the year with several rebel groups were broken quite soon.

The International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague brought further charges against President al-Bashir, now for genocide. He was accused of planning to partially destroy the peoples fur, masalite and zaghawa. A year earlier, the ICC had prosecuted and called for the president of war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur.

In February, the ICC dropped the charges against a Darfur rebel leader in lack of evidence. Two other daredevil rebels voluntarily arrived in The Hague in June, where they were charged with war crimes. The ICC reported the Sudanese state to the UN Security Council for its refusal to arrest and extradite a former minister and a rebel leader who is charged with 51 points for war crimes and crimes against humanity. They are accused, among other things, of murder, torture, mass rape and forced escape of a number of villages in Darfur. The minister was the government's responsible for humanitarian issues.

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